When white blood cells perform their normal functions, they operate within the body under control of the immune system. Each cell type has a specific function, and measurement of these functions in vitro is difficult. Concepts envisioned by scientists from both biological and engineering disciplines would allow a replication of the in vivo environment of a blood vessel and be able to monitor many hundreds of operating blood cells within that environment. This is termed the kinetic environmental module and is a high-tech environment in which is a close replication of a closed blood vessel. Solutions can be infused or removed from the cell and cells can be added or removed. Functioning cells within the vessel can be monitored continuously as individual cells and biochemical pathways monitored. While this sounds a relatively simple task, it is enormously complex and requires many advanced technologies, including laser beam-controlled signal measurement, complex timing and signal identification, hydrodynamic systems, and computer data analysis operations.